Pre-Qin period in Chinese history
With a time span of more than 1,800 years, the Pre-Qin Period (2,100 BC-221 BC) refers to the period before the Qin Dynasty (221-206) in Chinese history, and goes through 3 different historical stages, namely, the Xia Dynasty (2070 BC-1600 BC), the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC), the Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC-221 BC). . C.), during which the great ancient Chinese created a glorious civilization with their intelligence and hard work, including the inscription on the oracle bones of the Xia-Shang dynasties and the bronze items of the Shang-Zhou dynasties, and These cultural relics become the historical symbols of ancient Chinese civilization.
The oldest hereditary dynasty in Chinese history, the Xia dynasty, was established by Qi (son of Yu the Great) in 2070 BC. C., and the Erlitou site in Luoyang has been shown to be its original capital according to the latest archaeological finds, when the oldest calendar (Xia Xiao Zheng) appeared in Chinese history.
Legend has it that the last Xia dynasty emperor, Jie, was overthrown by Tang (the founder of the Shang dynasty) due to his cruel rule, and Tang was elected ruler of a new dynasty, the Shang dynasty, when the civilization it was more prosperous than that of the Xia dynasty, with bronze ware, primitive porcelains, and oracle bone inscriptions emerging. Although agriculture functioned as the main industry, great progress had been made in the handicraft industry in the Shang dynasty, especially in the field of bronze casting and casting technology. The last ruler of the Shang dynasty, Zhou, levied exorbitant taxes on workers and ignored state affairs, meanwhile another tribe led by Vassal Ji Chang gradually rose up in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and Ji Fa ( Vassal (Ji Chang’s son) rebelled first and won the decisive victory over the Shang ruler at the Battle of Muye, resulting in the downfall of the Shang dynasty and the rise of the Zhou dynasty. Ji Fa (or Emperor Wu) established the Zhou Dynasty with Haojing (present-day Xi’an of Shaanxi Province) as the capital, whose territory expanded much later, stretching from the Yangtze River in the south to Liaoning Province in the north and from Shandong province in the east to Gansu province in the west, and the patriarch system and government organizations were formed in the Zhou dynasty.
In fact, the Zhou Dynasty is made up of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, of which the latter is divided into the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC-476 BC) and the Period of the State of War (475 BC – 221 BC). Emperor Zhoupingwang moved the capital from Haojing to Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) due to the invasion of the nomadic tribe from the north in 770 BC. Since then the Zhou dynasty began to decline and the wheel of history advanced towards the eastern Zhou dynasty (770 BC-256 BC).
The fall of the Zhou dynasty led directly to the emergence of 100 small states, among which wars frequently broke out, and seven states stood out during the war, namely the state of Qi, the state of Chu, the state of Yan and Han. State, Zhao State, Wei State, and Qin State. Shang Yang was appointed chancellor to carry out reforms in the state of Qin in 356 a. C., making the state of Qin the most powerful state at that time, and Ying Zheng (ruler of the state of Qin) defeated the other six states one after another and established the first centralized state. feudal country in China: the Qin dynasty, which was known to the world as Emperor Qinshihuang.